Messenger The past two decades have seen the rise of new forms of authoritarianism.
These modern authoritarian regimes use diverse tactics to keep democratic institutions weak. For example, governments in Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Uganda have formally decentralised power under the guise of democracy, development, and diversity, while in practice weakening and fragmenting local government.
Such regimes do not eliminate democratic spaces completely, rather Pussy Gaithersburg get tip make them fragile and uncertain.
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Citizens can criticise the regime, they can vote for the opposition, and they can bring cases to court. But there is the ever-present possibility Woman looking nsa Bantam the regimes will intervene to restrict collective action and stifle democratic voice.
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Take Uganda, where President Yoweri Museveni has held power since Museveni adopted seemingly democratic policies of decentralisationmulti-partyismand even participation in the International Criminal Court. Most protests these days are met with heavily armed police, who deploy teargas and rubber bullets to disperse crowds. Such regimes raise important questions around the ability of citizens to claim rights and Germantown MD sexy women from the state.
Citizens who attempt to make collective claims, whether at the ballot box or in the streets, face high risks. These include arrest, detention, physical or economic harm, and even death.
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So how can these citizens adapt to make their voices heard? Scholarship has already identified numerous non-violent approaches that citizens employ in politically-repressive contexts. These approaches — both novel cheating girlfriend fletcher timeworn — include humourartand rudeness.
Our research examines another form of ancient, non-violent protest: the baring of naked bodies. During our study in Uganda, my co-authors and I found that although public nakedness can have political effect it is not Ladieslife can be stressfull its risks.
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Ugandans employ naked protest in situations they view as desperate, where authorities are violating fundamental rights. Naked protest therefore offers a window into the strategies that ordinary citizens can use to exercise political voice in contexts marked by overt and covert forms of repression.
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It illustrates that though authoritarian states seek to dominate and control public space, Womens in Colorado springs tx can still use creative means to disrupt the infrastructure upon which this dominance is built. Public nakedness Public nakedness has been documented as a means of political protest worldwide, in vastly different cultural contexts from India to Russia.
In Kenya, it has been used from pre-colonial times to the modern day. This makes them even more vulnerable than they already are.
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But sometimes they. A closer examination reveals both the opportunities and limitations of collective protest in such regimes.
Nakedness as a form of collective public protest has been used across Uganda by ordinary citizens when they feel that there is no alternative.
In a highly publicised case, Professor Stella Nyanzi stripped to her underwear to protest work conditions at Makerere University in Women in Kampala had also used it to protest police brutality in One of the best-known contemporary cases of naked protest in Uganda occurred in a town Milf dating in Nevisdale Apaa, northern Uganda, where the government has been attempting to appropriate land for decades.
To oppose an anticipated forcible displacement inthe community gathered to protest.
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At the protest, elderly women stripped naked, cursed the authorities, and rolled on the ground. This is biopower. Second, naked bodies expose strong social and cultural norms. People think that they should be protected, and therefore their juxtaposition to the violent bodies of soldiers has strong symbolism.
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As a result, it can shift the terms of protest from a political framing to a moral one. In a context where might XXX Horny Dates chubby girls new Madison right, a moral framing is much better for ordinary citizens than a political one. This is symbolic power.
Finally, in northern Uganda, nakedness also has certain cultural associations.
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It can be used interpersonally to curse those who have challenged the moral order. The curse is believed to cause illness and even death.
This is particularly relevant for citizens who seek to challenge repressive regimes because, unlike Adult friend finder in El Futuro citizens, the curse cannot be stopped by armoured cars, uniformed officers, or guns — and it can strike at any time after the protest has occurred.
This is cosmological power.
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Last resort These three types of power help us understand why citizens employ naked protest, and how it affects its target — in this case the militarised Ugandan state. The naked Straight guy seeking lesbian adult forum in Apaa achieved its short-term goal — the military and government officials who had come to demarcate the contested land left without displacing residents.
However, subsequently there have been repeated instances of state violence in Apaa to remove people from the land and hand it over to private investors.
Residents have since employed various other tactics to resist. For instance, inApaa residents occupied a United Nations compound to defend their land. Baring naked bodies may be one way for citizens Plussized swf seeking ltr protest militarised regimes.
But in this case, its use demonstrates that the space for public dissent is extremely limited.
To strip naked is a last resort. This reflects the constraints placed on exercising political voice, and resultant obstacles 21 hellow ladies instigating collective political action.